The content of the article
- Причины и виды воспаления печени 1 Causes and types of inflammation of the liver
- Диета при гепатите A… 2 Diet for Hepatitis A ...
- … гепатите B 3 ... hepatitis B
- … и гепатите C 4 ... and hepatitis C
- Как питаться во время болезни 5 How to eat during illness
- Проблема защелачивающей методики 6 The problem of alkalizing methods
- Как кормить заболевшего ребенка 7 How to feed a sick child
- Список продуктов 8 Products List
- Ежедневное меню 9 Daily menu
Absorbed fats are fed back to the liver. Traveling with blood in the free form of fat splitting products can not, because they do not dissolve in water. And the liver gives them "packaging" in the form of containers of protein, forming lipoproteins.
But the main "duties" of the liver relate to filtering the blood from the abundantly obsolete or simply foreign components that it splits, turning them into something more suitable for assimilation or removal.
Causes and types of inflammation of the liver
Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver tissue, and the inflammation of its ducts is called cholangitis. Cholecystitis is also widely known - inflammation of the gallbladder. Due to the outflow of bile from the hepatic ducts into the gallbladder, and not vice versa, cholecystitis can exist independently - not affect the condition of the liver. But her diseases, especially those that are accompanied by the formation of stones, soon provoke cholecystitis as a complication.
Hepatitis causes various causes.
- Specific viruses. The causative agents of not only A, B and C types of hepatitis, but also D, G TT SEN are already known. Some of them were discovered less than ten years ago and are under active study. It is still difficult to say something definite about their properties or treatment of viral hepatitis caused by them.
- Some medicines. Usually with a toxic effect on the liver (all means from atherosclerosis, part from diabetes mellitus). Sometimes hepatitis provokes a long intake of several different drugs when an excess of them is created. Most often, drug hepatitis disappears after the withdrawal of the remedies that caused it, but this is not always the case. Of particular danger in this regard are the statins (funds from atherosclerosis). They provoke not only hepatitis, but also liver cancer.
- Alcohol of different strength. With prolonged abuse of alcohol. The strength of the alcohol consumed does not affect the rate of development of the disease - only the extent and duration of the libation. Alcoholic hepatitis is also reversible, but its addiction can be treated worse.
- Poisons and toxins. Related drug and alcohol is toxic hepatitis, as it occurs when injected into the body of hepatotropic poisons (substances with specific toxicity to the liver). Such properties are possessed by antibiotics (especially sulfonamides like Biseptol), as well as phosphorus, arsenic, hydrocarbons (exhaust gas components), phenols (the basis of many disinfectants), and pesticides. Single ingestion of a large dose of hepatotropic poisons provokes acute toxic hepatitis, and repeated administration of small doses of them causes chronic. In both cases, with the cessation of the effect of poison (unless a single dose did not lead to organ failure), the inflammation of the liver diminishes, and the functions are restored. Diet for toxic hepatitis is not as important as the early elimination of toxin from the body. But during the acute period, it should be strict - completely exclude fatty, fried and spicy foods, based on cooking, stewing and grinding of cooked dishes. Patients with toxic hepatitis are shown protein diet with sufficient carbohydrate content. You need to eat in small portions and often six or more times a day. Simultaneous damage to the liver and kidneys is a contraindication to a pure protein diet. In this case, they are better to use, generously "diluting" with carbohydrates and fiber.
- Pathology of other organs. Most often also digestive or excretive. Also, reactive hepatitis can develop as a result of gastritis, duodenal ulcers, chronic pancreatitis, or even intestinal contamination with worms. It is eliminated by the detection and treatment of its true cause, but until it is found it differs by a stubborn, recurrent course.
- Autoimmune mechanisms. Autoimmune hepatitis is one of the rare and extremely dangerous scenarios of hepatitis due to its unpredictability and incurability. The effectiveness of immunosuppressants with it, unlike other autoimmune diseases, is reduced, it is only possible to control the process of liver destruction with the help of the whole set of therapeutic measures.
- Bacteria and protozoa. For example, when infected with pale treponema (causative agent of syphilis) or leptospirosis. Liver damage in bacterial hepatitis is always secondary and develops slowly (bile is one of the least favorable breeding grounds for bacteria). But it is also harder to treat it. Often the lesion remains in the liver even after successful treatment of the underlying infection.
Hepatitis A Diet ...
Hepatitis A can be infected through dirty foods and water, but there is a vaccine for it. Nearly 99% of patients tolerate this hepatitis in mild form and recover with the formation of lifelong immunity. The remaining 1% are those who have had hepatitis A in severe form or have died as a result of his fulminant (fulminant) development.
A diet for acute hepatitis A needs to be followed for no more than two weeks, with a light course minimal restrictions on the amount of any fat in food are necessary. Heavy form requires the use of simple, low-fat, boiled or steam dishes, preferably in a ground form.
... hepatitis B
The features of virus B are as follows.
- Transmission path. The virus is transmitted from a patient to a healthy person only through close personal contact, through blood that has come to damaged skin, as well as with saliva and sperm. Hepatitis B virus, well adapted to environmental survival, remains infectious on the patient’s blood-stained blades, syringe needles, scissor tips and other piercing-cutting utensils for a week. It is transmitted to the child from the mother during childbirth, but not during pregnancy.
- The effect of age. The younger the person infected with hepatitis B, the higher the risk of the disease going into the latent chronic stage. Conversely, the older he is, the higher the chances that after acute jaundice hepatitis B will spontaneously heal.
Diet for hepatitis B, occurring with jaundice, requires strict restrictions on foods containing any fats, spicy, fried, pickled foods. It is necessary to eat in small portions, five to seven times a day, chopping food before consumption and avoiding “dry meat”.
... and hepatitis C
Hepatitis C is very similar to Hepatitis B:
- а также со слюной и другими биологическими жидкостями больного; also transmitted with blood - as well as with saliva and other body fluids of the patient;
- может колебаться от двух месяцев до полугода. has a long incubation period - can vary from two months to six months.
But he more often than others is inclined to proceed chronically and covertly, masquerading as other liver pathologies. Due to the high ability of the virus to "mimicry", patients may not suspect that they have been infected for years and, therefore, do not worry about what can be eaten with hepatitis C and what cannot. Hepatitis C is carcinogenic, but it becomes truly dangerous in combination with other liver diseases, including superinfection with close strains (B or D).
The meaning of a diet in chronic hepatitis C is not much different from nutrition in other hepatitis: an increased content of proteins and fiber and a restriction on fats of all kinds, spicy and fried.
How to eat during illness
Hepatitis diet is designed to spare the liver as much as possible. It is based on three prohibitions.
- . On fats . All species, including vegetable ones, as bile is also necessary for their splitting. Animal fats should be limited more strictly (cholesterol is released from them, the “packaging” of which takes an extra resource from the liver). Especially it concerns refractory fats: beef, mutton. But it is also impossible to abolish fats completely, because with a deficiency of cholesterol in food, the liver doubles its own production. Mixed and modified fats (margarine, spread) require complete cancellation. They are distinguished by poor digestibility and carcinogenicity even with a healthy liver.
- . On the hot . Here we have in mind not only black pepper, but also vinegar. Appetite stimulants such as spices and marinades are also good choleretic agents. With stones or duct blockage, their reception may result in colic. The unobstructed and accelerated outflow of bile forces the liver to more quickly synthesize new bile, which the liver is often unable to do because of hepatitis and the degenerative processes it provokes.
- . On the fried . This ban was created at a time when it was understood that frying any kind of food was possible only on fats. But in the past few years, aerogrill, non-stick frying pans and other kitchen appliances have appeared on the market to reduce / eliminate the addition of oils. And now it is allowed to lightly fry some products with their help.
Given the prevalence of chronic course, nutrition for hepatitis C can be special only when the disease is exacerbated, and it is not necessary to follow its rules throughout life. The basis for the preparation of an exemplary menu is usually taken diet №5 by Pevzner. However, it was compiled at the beginning of the 20th century, when much less was known about viral hepatitis and its varieties than it is now (the same C-strain of the virus was isolated only in the 1980s).
Alkaline diet for hepatitis C and liver cirrhosis is often recommended, but not by doctors, but by “folk healers”. Its essence is to compile a menu of products rich in foods that create an alkaline instead of acidic environment in the intestine, since it "does not survive cancer cells", "does not cause rotting" and "does not form slags".
However, the authors of this diet forget to clarify (or do not know) that a strongly alkaline secret goes to the duodenum, and does not need to be “helped” in the form of dishes creating the same environment. This alkali with the digestive enzymes dissolved in it is synthesized by the pancreas, and it is called pancreatic juice. Pancreatic juice neutralizes hydrochloric acid, which goes along with the food mass from the stomach into the intestine. And the appearance of its deficiency (real “oxidation” of the intestinal environment, as alkali ceases to be enough to neutralize gastric acid) threatens it not just with “slags”, but with inflammation and erosion of its walls.
In this case, there are degenerative processes in the pancreas, and the use of alkalizing products from them will not help. You must first cure chronic pancreatitis and make sure that the patient does not have pancreatic cancer, as he is distinguished by rapid progress and poor prognosis. And measures like baking soda give a palliative effect and mask the true extent of the disease. They also have nothing to do with the work of the liver and hepatitis.
How to feed a sick child
Diet planning for children older than three years with hepatitis is no different from composing it for adults. The only problem is the age of infancy, since mother's milk is rich in fat, and it contains critical for the growth and development of the baby cholesterol.
The solution may be to replace breast milk with an artificial mixture of cholesterol and a reduced content of unsplit fats. But doctors' reviews of the results of such a translation are usually not the best (the course of hepatitis is facilitated slightly, but the risk of developmental delay and abnormalities in the work of the digestive tract for life) increases. In the case of infants, pediatricians consider it more appropriate to administer hepatoprotectors and immunomodulators without weaning.
Pevzner table (diet) No. 5 is designed for liver pathologies in their normal course (beyond exacerbations). The menu can include:
- any stale bread;
- low-fat dairy products;
- protein of any eggs;
- all cereals;
- boiled sausages without lard;
- soups and borscht on a low-fat broth and without the addition of oils;
- lean meat (chicken, turkey, rabbit);
- pasta without oil (can be on milk);
- vegetables and fruits, except pickled and sour by nature.
In addition, allowed:
- – мед, сахар-песок, мармелад, желе, варенье, джем и пастила; from sweets - honey, granulated sugar, marmalade, jelly, jam, jam and candy;
- – укроп, петрушка, корица и ваниль; from spices - dill, parsley, cinnamon and vanilla;
- – кофе (только некрепкий и с молоком), чай, травяные отвары и настои, кисель, фруктовые и овощные соки и фреши. of the drinks are coffee (only weak and with milk), tea, herbal teas and infusions, jelly, fruit and vegetable juices and fresh juices.
From the diet number 5 excluded:
- sweet pastries, chocolate and fat-based creams;
- pork, duck and all offal;
- canned meat and fish;
- smoked meat and sausage with the addition of bacon;
- egg yolks;
- fish roe (any);
- pickled vegetables;
- dressings of vinegar and sour sauces;
- high fat milk and sour cream;
- cream, including vegetable;
- legumes, including peas;
- ketchup and mayonnaise;
- radish, radish, horseradish, mustard, garlic;
- any vegetables with a sharp, pungent taste;
- spinach, sorrel and other sour vegetables / herbs;
- pure coffee, cocoa, ice cream, cold dishes and drinks.
The diet menu for hepatitis C for each day you need to count on five or more receptions, in small portions (no more than 300 g of the total weight in each), in the form of heat. It is better to choose simple recipes - from no more than three components, as dishes with a complex composition are assimilated with great difficulty. An approximate table of products and meals for each day of the diet may look as follows.
Table - Example of a diet menu for hepatitis C for a week
|Days||First breakfast||Lunch||Dinner||Afternoon tea||First dinner||Second dinner|
|one|| - Chicken steak; |
- pshenka on lean broth, without oil;
- cottage cheese casserole with raisins
|Rice pudding with carrots and sour cream|| - Borsch without fat and beans, with meat; |
- stuffed cabbage with meat and rice
| - Boiled turkey sausage; |
- unskilled potato in uniforms
| - Cabbage stew with meat; |
- vegetable salad
|Semolina Casserole with Icing Sugar|
|2|| - Salad of any fresh vegetables; |
- braised rabbit with sour cream sauce
| - Milk-rice soup; |
- chicken cue ball;
- pasta broth, without oil
| - buckwheat; |
- chopped grilled chicken breast
|Protein omelet with boiled sausage from poultry meat|| - Crab salad; |
- curd paste with raisins
| - Fruit salad; |
- yesterday's white bread with jam
|3|| - Potato casserole with chicken; |
- vegetable smoothie without butter
| - Grilled cod fillet; |
- vegetable stew
| - Ear with the addition of vegetables and herbs; |
- jelly from poultry meat, no horseradish;
- mashed potatoes
|Homemade ravioli with poultry and cream|| - Vermicelli with milk; |
- curd paste with raisins
| - Rice pudding; |
- fruit jelly
|four|| - Navy pasta; |
- a fresh vegetable salad;
| - Cauliflower in batter; |
- minced grilled chicken fillet
| - Oatmeal soup with low-fat cheese; |
- fillet of pollock, hake or pike perch, baked with vegetables;
- apples baked with sugar
|Protein omelet with crab sticks and squid|| - Vegetable stew; |
- minced chicken cutlet
| - Vegetable stuffed cabbage; |
- fresh fruits
|five|| - Boiled fish with greens; |
- mashed potatoes with sour cream
| - Oatmeal on milk; |
- dumplings with fruit filling
| - Vegetable soup with rice; |
- chicken, baked with vegetables and cheese;
- carrot and apple patties
| - Beet salad with prunes, without garlic, with sour cream; |
- stale bread with jam or jam
| - Sandwich with poultry fillet sausage; |
- fruit smoothie
|6|| - Zucchini stuffed with vegetables, under a cheese coat; |
- fruit and cheese mousse
| - Steamed pike fillet with potatoes; |
- compote or jelly
| - Buckwheat soup with chicken and low-fat sour cream; |
- vegetable stew;
- poultry meatballs
| - Salad of red cabbage; |
- chopped grilled chicken breast
| - Seafood salad; |
- vegetable stew
| - semolina porridge with milk and strawberry jam; |
- milkshake without ice cream and cream, with fruit
|7|| - Sandwich with low-fat hard cheese and pork sausage; |
- cottage cheese casserole with raisins
| - Meatloaf with dried apricots or prunes and nuts; |
- rice porrige
| - Rice soup with chicken meatballs; |
- dumplings with potatoes
| - Braised cabbage with chicken; |
- protein omelet with crab sticks, shrimps and cheese
| - Steamed fishballs; |
- a fresh vegetable salad
| - Pike perch with sour cream sauce; |
- sweet pumpkin porridge
There is white / black / bran yesterday's bread can be eaten with any of these dishes or separately in quantities of up to 100 g per day. The total amount of consumed fat should not exceed 80 g (with an exacerbation - 50 g) per day. Food with hepatitis C allows for more frequent preparation of mixed salads (vegetables plus animal products, as in Greek salad). But they still should not be filled with mayonnaise and vinegar, add fat, use pickled "inclusions", cheese, meat and fish of high fat content.